Campaign paper

This document states the background, process, principal premise and major expectations of Bangladeshi NGOs from INGOs (International NGO), Donors and UN agencies in view of the World Humanitarian Summit (WHS) and the Grand Bargain (GB)policy outcomes and in view of the discussions on ‘development effectiveness’ (DE). These three global policy discourses give importance to the role of civil society / NGOs and especially the primacy of local civil society in respect of promoting a humanitarian and democratic society.
We are Bangladeshi national and local non-government organization (NNGO/LNGO) or civil societies working with innational boundaries with a home grown or indigenous background. In the whole document where we have used the term NNGOs, it’s also includes the interest of the LNGOs, but in specific issues where it is appropriate we have used the term LNGO. We do both humanitarian and development activities, [Click here for full report]

IndexIn September 2015, heads of states and governments met at the UN (United Nation) headquarter in New York and agreed on a new generation of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) with 169 targets to succeed the MDGs (Millennium Development Goals) and to guide global development over the next 15 years till 2030. Before the SDGs, the MDGs were the first ever global blueprint for fighting poverty on such scale. When the Millennium Declaration was adopted in September 2000, no one perhaps had any illusion that it would be managed and able to address global problems. Nevertheless, over time, MDGs have achieved notable progress in many global issues and also have given the hope to create a new world within existing means. That’s why the 2030 Agenda for SDGs has also offered a set of bold, ambitious and innovative package to transform the world. Therefore, the expectations around the goals are high. The experience with the MDGs implies that, Bangladesh has many reasons to feel excited about the promises that are beckoning us for another decade and a half. Download document [SDG and Country Process in Bangladesh_EquityBD Campaign Paper] as PDF

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brief-Understanding-Tax-JusThe sustainability of any modern economy requires the state to have sufficient revenue for funding the physical and social infrastructure essential to economic welfare, and also to enable a degree of wealth distribution between rich and poor in order to promote equity and security. The main
components of the Tax Justice comprise both the duty of the taxpayers and the duty of the state.
For the taxpayers, tax justice means that they accept their duties to the states in which they reside (as a citizen or for the business purpose) to fairly declare all of their income and to pay the taxes they owe as defined by the law of that country.
For state, it has to create a system of taxation that requires each person (whether a real person or a corporate entity or trust) to pay tax according to their means like i) imposes no undue cost on them to comply with that law, ii) provides them with reasonable certainty as to what is due, iii)
provides a system of access to information and arbitration when the law is not clear, iv) State expenses are budgeted and accounted for through democratic and transparent processes, v) imposes a duty to ensure that taxes are applied fairly.Download the document [Understanding Tax Justice] as pdf

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brief-SAARC-Food-and-Seed-BClimate Change and vulnerability in South Asia Flooding, food shortages, and being impoverishment of
our people gradually are common incidents of devastating impacts in South Asia, those have experienced due to advancing of climate change impact, The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report said that the effect of GHG emission growth will be felt worldwide, but that will be especially intense in South Asia; countries as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The report’s assessment also said that the climate change effects we are already seeing but rank Asia as the biggest victim of natural disasters last years, accounting for nearly 30 percent of the global economic loss attributed to natural disasters
Download the document [SAARC Seed Bank_Food Bank] as pdf

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A Brief review of SAARC Declaration on Climate Change, Dhaka (2008) and Thimphu (2010)
Built a climate resilient South Asia
SAARC charter on Free Movement of Climate Migrant

brief-SAARC-charter-on-FreeClimate Change and vulnerability in South Asia Flooding, food shortages, and being impoverishment of our people gradually are common incidents of devastating impacts in South Asia, those have experienced due
to advancing of climate change impact, The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report
said that the effect of GHG emission growth will be felt worldwide, but that will be especially intense in South Asia; countries as Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. The report’s assessment also said that the climate change effects we are already seeing but rank Asia as the biggest victim of natural disasters last years, accounting for nearly 30 percent of the global economic loss attributed to natural disasters

Download the document [Build a Climate Resilient South Asia] as pdf

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Pharmaceutical TRIPS waiver must be extended for LDC
brief-TRIPS-Waiver-for-LDC-WTO is going to introduce the pharmaceutical patent protection under Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)  agreement in January 2016. It means the pledged special waiver on TRIPS for LDC (Least Developed Countries), including Bangladesh,  expires by 31st December 2015.

TRIPS is a binding agreement for all WTO members and it aims to  establish a strong minimum standards for intellectual property rights (IPR) including patent protection for pharmaceuticals. Developing
and Least Developed Countries have been expressing their concern  on this strong patent protection as it will not only be harmful for the  development of their pharmaceutical industries, it will also under-mine the entire public health service to be affordable to poor.

Taking the concern into account, the WTO Ministerial Conference, in Doha on 14 November 2001 further extended the transitional  period for LDC to introduce pharmaceutical patent protection until January 2016.

 

Download the document [ EquityBD Briefing Paper_TRIPS Waiver] as pdf

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brief-VAT-is-Regressive-to-Value Added Tax (VAT) is an indirect tax on the consumption of goods and services. It is imposed on a product or service whenever value is added at a stage of production and at final sale. The amount of VAT that the user pays is the cost of the product, less any of the costs of materials used in the product that have already been taxed. So, the burden of VAT falls almost entirely on the ultimate consumers
In developing countries about two-thirds of the tax revenue comes from indirect taxes, mostly from VAT and others are from sales tax, excises and taxes on trade. The remaining one-third consists largely of corporate income tax. Tax revenue structure in Bangladesh can be divided into direct and indirect taxes. A direct tax is paid by a person to the revenue authority. Direct tax is borne by the tax payer and cannot be passed on to any person, whereas indirect tax is passed on by the tax payer so that the burden of the tax is ultimately borne by another. For example, Value Added Tax (VAT) which is passed on to the customers i.e. general people
Download the document [ VAT is regressive to poor ] as pdf

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brief-Black-Money-in--BanglBlack money indicates the accumulation of income which is not figured in the account book. It is the aggregated income which are taxable but not reported to the tax authority. That’s why it can be
termed as hidden money. As a result ‘black money’ can not legally take part in the declared and formal business transaction in the economy. It is, therefore, mainly used for kind of unauthorised and
unchallenged transactions or in posh living which, in turn, causes high rise to black market operation. The other terms for this kind of economic activities are informal, irregular, underground, hidden,
unofficial, dual, unrecorded, untaxed and unmeasured economy. It is also called Shadow Economy.
Download the Document [Black Money in Bangladesh] as pdf

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Illicit Financial Flows and Bangladesh Perspective

brief-Whose-money-and-whoseIllicit financial flows are cross-border transfer of funds that are illegally earned, transferred or utilized. It can be generated in a many different ways that are not revealed in national accounts or balance
of payments figures. And it includes trade mispricing, bribery, money laundering, crimes, corruption, smuggling etc. Both companies and individuals can lead this illicit financial flows from one country to
another. The outflow of capital is facilitated by a shadow international financial system, especially offshore financial centres, tax secrecy jurisdictions that is famously known as ‘tax havens’.
More than 200 Multinational companies (MNCs) have been working in Bangladesh and allegedly evading the due taxes through transfer pricing and other tricks and the country is losing a huge amount of
revenue every year. MNCs usually evade taxes through the abuse of transfer pricing or mispricing in different ways including capital flight, transfer of dividend and profit to its permanent establishments
including over and under-invoicing during transactions of goods and services within their associated enterprises
Download the document [Illicit Money Flies off Bangladesh] as pdf

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brief-Who-Will-Bell-the-CatThe weakness of tax administration in Bangladesh is a poor tax collection management. The largest part of the underground economic activities is the tax hiding or evasion by the Multi National Companies (MNC). The capital flight of MNCs occurs through transfer pricing or shifting the money to their head offices, sister
concerns or to the tax heavens. No exclusive research or study so far in Bangladesh showed what amount of money has been evaded by the MNCs out of the payable taxes. Proper and prerogative
initiatives by the government to pull in those taxes being evaded by the MNCs could increase the ratio of direct taxes in the total composition of the national revenue which, in turn, could release the
pressure on the mass people for indirect taxes. To be mentioned that, 75% of the total revenue is presently collected as the indirect tax where VAT (Value Added Tax) is one of the major sources and
the easiest tool for internal revenue mobilization.
Download the document [MNC Tax Evasion in Bangladesh] as pdf